Background: Tumor models are critical for our understanding of cancer and the development of cancer therapeutics. The 4T1 murine mammary cancer cell line is one of the most widely used breast cancer models. Here, we present an integrated map of the genome, transcriptome, and immunome of 4T1.Results: We found Trp53 (Tp53) and Pik3g to be mutated. Other frequently mutated genes in breast cancer, including Brca1 and Brca2, are not mutated. For cancer related genes, Nav3, Cenpf, Muc5Ac, Mpp7, Gas1, MageD2, Dusp1, Ros, Polr2a, Rragd, Ros1, and Hoxa9 are mutated. Markers for cell proliferation like Top2a, Birc5, and Mki67 are highly expressed, so are markers for metastasis like Msln, Ect2, and Plk1, which are known to be overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC markers are, compared to a mammary gland control sample, lower (Esr1), comparably low (Erbb2), or not expressed at all (Pgr). We also found testis cancer antigen Pbk as well as colon/gastrointestinal cancer antigens Gpa33 and Epcam to be highly expressed. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I is expressed, while MHC class II is not. We identified 505 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) and 20 insertions and deletions (indels). Neoantigens derived from 22 SNVs and one deletion elicited CD8+ or CD4+ T cell responses in IFNγ-ELISpot assays. Twelve high-confidence fusion genes were observed. We did not observe significant downregulation of mismatch repair (MMR) genes or SNVs/indels impairing their function, providing evidence for 6-thioguanine resistance. Effects of the integration of the murine mammary tumor virus were observed at the genome and transcriptome level.
Conclusions: 4T1 cells share substantial molecular features with human TNBC. As 4T1 is a common model for metastatic tumors, our data supports the rational design of mode-of-action studies for pre-clinical evaluation of targeted immunotherapies.